What is new?
Gender differences are significantly present and evident in the labor market and different sectors of employment. In the period of 25 years, although the female counterpart has made noticeable progress in the domain of productivity and earnings, they are still one step behind the male labor force. Their earnings and progress are disproportionate to the level of effort and input they invest. Therefore, the stark differences in the treatment of women in employment and their salaries rise.
The analysts claim that the reasons behind the poor payment methods to the female labor force are the business failures, economic recession and faltering productivity of the businesses. The majority of the feminist view the sheer exploitation of women in the labor force because of their low paying jobs. They claim that the male counterparts should also be given low paid jobs if the business functions in an unpredictable environment or is facing lower productivity issues.
It is undeniable that throughout employment sectors, occupations, types of firms, job requirements, and industries, gender segregation is immensely noticeable. The nature of the man and women employment differs significantly. No matter how much the economies progress and develop, the gender differences in sectors of employment are still at its place. Therefore, throughout the world even in the western countries, women are seen working in low paid and less privileged jobs. They are continuously facing barriers to progress despite their skills and eligibility to move ahead.
As a result, the women counterparts are seen working in farms or the entrepreneurs of small-scale businesses. In other words, they are concentrated in low-paid and low-productivity employment. They are workers of small farms or the entrepreneurs of those businesses that have limited scope. Even in the easy-going sectors they hardly ever rise to an authoritative position.
Many factors contribute to the employment segregation and low-paid jobs. Although the differences in returns and human capital are the reason for employment differences, the main driving force is gender differences. So let us look at three prime factors that lead to employment differences:
Women are responsible for home care
There is no doubt in the fact that women need to invest quantifiable time in taking care of their house. As compared to the male counterparts, almost all of the house care responsibility fall on their shoulders. In this way, the majority of the women are seen representing the part-time jobs and are working for minimum hours. In this respect, their earnings and may differ significantly from men who are full-time employees and invest considerable time at the jobs. Therefore, as women tend to give less time in their jobs due to their household responsibilities they receive less income than men.
Stereotyping of the women
Women in society and in particular in the workforce environment are stigmatized as weak and fallible. Pertaining to this conception, they are mostly enrolled in jobs that do not require any strenuous or demanding work. These jobs have fewer working hours and are relaxing. Therefore the biased working environment associates such jobs with men. As a result, such conceptions inhibit the chances of women to climb the employment ladder despite their eligibility, capabilities, and qualifications.
The internal organization of firms and companies
Deliberately or otherwise, the designing and functioning of the firms are such that they favor gender inequality in employment sectors. In this respect, the women are under-representative in the company’s workforce. And with their under-representation, the firms may not be aware of the fact that women may be one step ahead of the men regarding knowledge and potential.
A research study of gender differences in employment in New Zealand
A research that was conducted in the economy of New Zealand showed that women are highly devalued and prejudiced in the employment sectors. Despite investing the same level of effort and contribution, the women are paid 16% less than their male counterparts. The study also deduced that the main reason for gender inequality in employment is sexism. Thus, sexism in this respect means that although the women counterparts were highly qualified, experienced and fulfilled the job criteria from all ends, they were denied significant positions within the firm. This biased attitude of the HR team and employers of different employment sectors widened the gender discrimination gap.
Furthermore, when the study examined the whole economy and different employment sectors in New Zealand, they found startling conclusions. First of all, they found that the female workforce was over-represented in low paying sectors such as beverage and food industries. Moreover, the study also found alarming results of gender inequality in the private sector. They found that although women and men employees contributed equally towards the productivity levels of the profitable firms, their wages differ. The ratio of payment was 84 cents to 1 dollar.
Therefore, it is evident that the preconceived notions regarding the female counterparts and the sexism in workplaces lead to the gender gap. It is sad to realize that although economies have progressed significantly over the last two decades, gender inequality is still at its place.